9 things to know about lead health risks — and how to control them

acidic: An adjective for substances that contain acids. Acidic substances are often able to dissolve certain minerals, such as carbonates, or prevent their formation in the first place.

behavior: the way something, often a person or other organism, acts or conducts itself toward others.

blood pressure: The force exerted against the vessel wall by the movement of blood through the body. Generally, this pressure refers to the blood moving through the body’s arteries in particular. This pressure allows blood to circulate to our head and keeps the fluid moving so it can deliver oxygen to all tissues. Blood pressure can vary based on physical activity and body position. High blood pressure can put someone at risk of heart attack or stroke. Low blood pressure can make people dizzy, or faint, because the pressure becomes too low to supply enough blood to the brain.

cancer: Any of more than 100 different diseases, each characterized by rapid, uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells. The development and growth of cancer, also known as malignancy, can cause tumors, pain and death.

Chalet: (in public health) to administer a chelating agent, which will bind to certain metals (often lead) to remove them from the body. This treatment is known as chelation therapy.

knowledge based: A term related to mental activities, such as thinking, learning, remembering, and solving puzzles.

decayed: (n. Corrosion) A chemical process that weakens or destroys normally solid materials such as metals or rocks.

Information center: An organized collection of related information.

depression: (in medicine) a mental disorder characterized by persistent sadness and apathy. Although these feelings can be triggered by events, such as the death of a loved one or moving to a new city, it is not usually considered an “illness”—unless the symptoms are prolonged and impair a person’s ability to perform normal daily activities. Activities (such as working, sleeping or interacting with others). People suffering from depression often feel that they lack the energy they need to do anything. They may have difficulty concentrating on things or showing interest in normal events. Many times, these feelings seem to be triggered by nothing; They can appear anywhere.

Bikash: arising or creating naturally or through human intervention, such as by production. (in biology) To grow as an organism from conception through adulthood, often with changes in chemistry, size, mental maturity, or sometimes even shape.

disease: (in medicine) A condition in which the body does not function properly, which can be seen as an illness. This term can sometimes be used interchangeably with disease.

the economy: Social science that deals with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services and the theory and management of economics or economic systems. A person who studies economics is a Economist.

material: (in chemistry) any of more than one hundred substances for which the smallest unit of each is a single atom. Examples include hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, lithium, and uranium.

Environmental Protection Agency: (or EPA) is a national government agency charged with helping to create a clean, safe, and healthy environment in the United States. Created on December 2, 1970, it reviews data on the potential toxicity of new chemicals (except foods or drugs, which are regulated by other agencies) before they are approved for sale and use. Where such chemicals can be toxic, it sets limits or guidelines on how much of them can be released (or allowed to build up) into the air, water or soil.

Epidemiologist: Like health detectives, these researchers look for links to a particular illness that may be causing it and/or allowing it to spread.

strainer: (n.) Something that allows some elements to pass through without others based on their size or some other characteristic. (v.) The process of screening certain substances on the basis of properties such as size, density, electric charge. (in physics) a screen, plate, or layer of a substance that absorbs light or other radiation or selectively blocks the transmission of some of its components.

friction: The resistance that a surface or object experiences when moving over or through another material (such as a liquid or gas). Friction usually creates a heat, which can damage one surface of some material as it rubs against another.

high blood pressure: General term for a medical condition known as high blood pressure. It puts pressure on blood vessels and heart.

Immune: (adj.) having to do with immunity. (v.) Capable of preventing a certain infection. Alternatively, the term may be used to denote an organism showing no effect on exposure to a particular toxin or process. More generally, the term can signal that some harm cannot be caused by a particular drug, disease, or chemical.

Infrastructure: The underlying structure of a system. The term generally refers to the basic physical structures and facilities on which a society depends. These include roads, bridges, sewers, drinking water supplies, electrical power grids and phone systems.

IQ: Short for Intelligence Quotient. It is a number that represents a person’s reasoning ability. It is determined by dividing a person’s score on a particular test by their age, then multiplying by 100.

kidney: A pair of organs in every mammal that filter blood and make urine.

Leech: (in geology and chemistry) the process by which water (often in the form of rain) removes soluble minerals or other chemicals from solid materials, such as rock, or from sand, soil, bone, trash, or ash.

leadership: A toxic heavy metal (abbreviated as Pb) that goes where calcium wants to go in the body (eg bones and teeth). The metal is particularly toxic to the brain. In a child’s developing brain, this can permanently impair IQ, even at relatively low levels.

mental health: A term for one’s mental, psychological and social well-being. It refers to how people behave themselves and how they interact with others. It includes how people make choices, manage stress, and manage fear or anxiety. Poor mental health can be triggered by illness or reflect a short-term response to life challenges. It can occur in people of any age from children to the elderly.

metal: Something that conducts electricity well, tends to shine (reflect), and is malleable (ie can be reshaped with heat and not too much force or pressure).

nutrition: A vitamin, mineral, fat, carbohydrate, or protein that a plant, animal, or other organism needs as part of its diet to survive.

Octane Booster: Octane refers to a class of colorless, flammable hydrocarbons that appear in gasoline and other fuels during petroleum refining. When a fuel’s octane level isn’t high enough, some auto engines make a pinging, knocking sound, or start to hesitate. To avoid this, engineers developed liquid fuel additives known as octane boosters. A notorious and widely used type in the mid-20sm Centuries contain the toxic, heavy metal lead.

panic disorder: A type of anxiety disorder. Its victims often experience sudden attacks of overwhelming fear and panic. Panic attacks can occur for no apparent reason. They often include strong physical reactions. People with such attacks sometimes feel like they are losing control, can’t breathe and even have a heart attack.

particle: a minute amount of something.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: A prestigious journal publishing original scientific research, started in 1914. The content of the journal spans the biological, physical and social sciences. Each of the more than 3,000 papers it publishes each year is now not only peer reviewed, but also approved by a member of the US National Academy of Sciences.

psychologist: A scientist or mental-health professional who studies the mind, especially as it relates to action and behavior. Work with some people. Others may experiment with animals (usually rats) to see how their minds respond to different stimuli and conditions.

Boy: Sandhi: A developmental period in humans and other primates when the body undergoes hormonal changes that result in the maturation of the reproductive organs.

the risk: the chance or mathematical probability that some bad thing can happen. For example, exposure to radiation creates a risk of cancer. Or the danger – or danger – itself. (In this case: Among the cancer risks humans were exposed to were radiation and drinking water containing arsenic.)

social: (adj.) relating to public gatherings; A term for animals (or people) that like to live in groups. (noun) a gathering of people, for example members of a club or other organization, for the purpose of enjoying each other’s company.

Sociologist: A scientist who studies the behavior of human groups, how those behaviors evolved, and the organizations people create to support human communities (society).

standardized test: A test that is administered and scored the same way for all students and is usually given to a large population of students (not just individual classes). Schools regularly conduct such tests in specific subjects so that they can track how well their students are performing in those school subjects. The test can be given as a paper-pencil test or on the computer.

stroke: (in biology and medicine) a condition in which blood flow to part of the brain is blocked or there is a leak in the brain.

Survey: to see, examine, measure, or evaluate something, often land or broad aspects of a landscape. (of people) asking questions that gather information on opinions, practices (such as dining or sleeping habits), knowledge, or skills. Researchers select the number and types of people to question in the hope that the answers these people give will be representative of others who are their age, belong to the same ethnic group, or live in the same region. (n.) List of questions that will be asked to collect that data.

Symptoms: A physical or mental indicator that is generally considered characteristic of a disease. Sometimes a single symptom—especially a common one, such as fever or pain—can be a sign of any one of several types of injury or disease.

method: A network of parts that work together to achieve some function. For example, blood, vessels, and heart are the primary components of the circulatory system of the human body. Similarly, trains, platforms, tracks, road signals and overpasses are among the possible components of a country’s railway system. System can even be applied to processes or concepts that are part of some procedure or order set of procedures to accomplish a task.

poisonous: Toxic or capable of damaging or killing cells, tissues or whole organisms. A measure of the risk posed by such a poison is its toxicity.

the waste: Any materials left over from biological or other systems that have no value, so they can be disposed of as trash or recycled for some new use.

womb: Another name for the uterus, the mammalian organ in which an embryo grows and matures in preparation for birth.

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